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Spring Interview Questions and Answers

Are you a keen programmer? Are you looking for spring interview questions for experienced candidates? 

Being a Java programmer is one of the leading jobs. Java is skill-dominant programming and requires in-depth knowledge of the software. You might be wondering why Java developers are so popular? Java is a versatile platform that allows you to move from one computer system to another, unlike other platforms. 

Take a look at the statistics of Technical skills jobs posting, April 2020, to find out the market trend of your career in computer engineering. Java has been ranked the second highest in demand which is 17,236, and spring interview questions for experienced are increasingly asked. 

While considering a job as a Java programmer, one must assure they have attained adequate knowledge of the spring framework. Candidates are often tense about how to prepare for this challenging interview. There is a lookout for spring interview questions for experienced candidates. To ace an interview, it is essential that one pen down the predicted questions and practice them thoroughly. It will make you more confident and impressed with the interviewer. 

Are you cracking your head up for a Java spring interview. It is a common problem of a lot of youth preparing to enter the software world. In this article, you will get plenty of information on spring interview questions for experienced. This article will also give an overview of a very crucial and sometimes challenging part in discussing spring interview questions for experienced people applying for this job

How to get ready for a Java spring interview 

We will first glance at the generic questions related to spring framework interview questions then cover other questions subtopic-wise. These will be the basic spring interview questions for experienced programmers and should be known on fingertips.

General interview questions for the framework 

  1. Why is the spring framework so popular?

When preparing for spring interview questions for experienced, it is important to understand why the spring framework has risen so much compared to the other frameworks,

It is a robust framework, yet very light. The most important factor is that it can be segregated into different modules which serve a unique function.  

The spring framework has found solutions to some menaces in the IT sector. The three major fixes were:

  • The codes avoid complicating as the application progresses
  • The light nature of the framework keeps the performance upright
  • Component is easy to lookup

  • What is the Spring framework

Spring framework can be beneficial as it supports other frameworks like Hibernate and Tapestry. It is a lightweight, integrated framework for applications in Java. The features can be accessed by a Java application.

(This is the fundamental question amongst the spring interview questions for experienced developers. )

  1. What are the pros and cons of a spring framework in Java?

The interviewers love putting this question in the spring interview questions for experienced software engineers. 

Pros

  • Flexible framework- The developers can often choose between Java-based annotations and XML for configuration options. 
  • Lightweight– The implementation of POJOs (Plain Old Java Object) makes it uncomplicated.
  • Portable– Server-side can be used in web/EJB apps, and client-side in the swing app business.
  • Configuration: You can configure anything separately like application logic.
  • Loosely coupled– dependency injection in spring framework I inject dependent components without a component without their knowledge of the origin
  • Powerful Abstraction: A strong abstraction is given to JEE specifications such as JMS, JDBC.
  • Cross-cutting behavior: It can be snipped and pasted anywhere, so managing resources is easier. 
  • Support: Declarative support can make caching, validation, transaction, and formatting efficient in the Java framework.
  • Lifecycle: It can manage middle-tier containers and all other application components via an improved life cycle. Dependency Injection: JavaEE can be developed through this feature.
  • Easier Testing: The previous feature makes the testing easy. The spring framework does not need a server for this.
  • Speed: It is quick in start up and shutting down. It has a stable execution. The spring developers can complete multiple projects in a shorter time frame. 
  •  Safety: Spring Security framework. Secures this framework, also providing various schemes for security. It also keeps a check on third parties.
  •  Supportive: There are regular tutorials, videos, lessons, and resources which will guide you through this process. 
  •  Productive: It can be merged with other spring-based applications like integrating Spring Boot application with Spring Cloud. It makes the framework more efficient.

Cons

  •  Complex: You need more skills, you need to learn a lot and require some prior experience to comprehend this framework.
  • No Specific Guidelines mentioned: You could face trouble stopping invasion from hackers as it leaves loose ends for cross-site scripting and XXS.
  • Parallel Mechanism: Too many options can confuse programmers and it can delay the application procedure. 
  • Learning: With inadequate experience, it’s testing to grasp the novel methods of programming. 
  • Extensive use of XML: A spring application invites a lot of work with XML.
  1. Highlight some features of the spring framework.

This one is an essential question when answering spring interview questions for experienced candidates.

  • AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming)

It makes logging safer as it separates cross-cutting issues. It is also undeniably important in this framework.

Light in weight 

It is one of the most highly pointed features of this framework (most frequently asked in spring framework interview.) It is smaller in size and does not allow any interfaces.

  •  DO (Dependency Injection)

This allows developers to create loosely integrated applications. Modules become flexible, easy to test and swap. 

  •  Transaction Management

Transaction management for Java objects is coordinated. Also, it is not linked to the J2EE environment.

  •  Lifecycle 

(Spring framework interview asks short definitions) It directs the lifecycle and application objects configuration.

  • Merging With Other Frameworks

It has a unique problem-solving methodology. Instead of solving problems, it integrates other frameworks and curbs the challenges. 

  • List the modules in the spring framework.

Spring interview questions for experienced programmers expect the knowledge of these modules.

  • Spring Core
  • Spring AOP
  • Spring Transaction
  •  Spring MVC
  • Spring JDBC,
  • Spring Security.
  • Spring AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming)
  • Spring bean
  • Spring context
  •  Spring language and expressions

Subtopics questions and answers: Spring Framework interview 

Now we will be moving on to more specific topics in Java spring interviewFollowing is a list of the topics which will be covered particularly so that candidates appear meticulously prepared. When you are getting ready for a spring interview questions for experienced Java-heads, you should have some knowledge of the particular topics. 

  • Spring container and IOC
  • Spring Bean Lifecycle
  • Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP)
  • Spring JPA
  • Spring security
  • Spring Cloud 
  • Spring boot testing
  • Spring boot actuator

Question answers on the subparts of this framework

  • Spring container and Ioc

This is also favourite of the interviewers during a spring interview questions for experienced.

  • What’s Ioc?

Ioc is an Inversion of control that produces the flow of control inverse in programming. The dependencies are acquired from external sources which can be a generic framework. 

  • What’s dependency injection? 

The dependencies are the requirements on an object which serves the function of supporting another object. 

  • How is MVC utilized within the spring framework? 

MVC follows a pattern where it handles data and presents it to the software, the controller then quenches by finding the right sources.

  • Explain application context?

 This advanced container in spring wires beans carries heavy bean definition and releases them as per need.

  • Is there a difference between context application and bean factory in spring? If yes, what’s it?

Bean factory loads later while the applying context features a faster loading speed. 

Application context supports bean framework and helps to strengthen it, it’s supported dependency injection. On the other hand, the bean factory only holds up Singleton and Prototype. 3. Registration in additional context happens without typing additional codes, while in bean factory the registration might be a complicated process, where it might not be automatic, and codes have to be written. 

  • What’s component scanning in spring? 

Component scanning allows for specific components to be scanned by the program. 

  • What’s integration in spring? 

It helps to send lightweight messages via external sources. 

  • What’s the way to shut application context in spring boot?

 Spring boot is an integral and significant part of spring so it should be revised before spring interview questions for experienced. Spring Boot application are often closed by SpringApplication. Programmers can use closemethod to shut ApplicationContext.

  • What could also be a setter in spring? 

The setter could also be a way within the spring framework that helps to inject dependencies.

  • What’s the difference between setter and constructor injection?

Values are going to be changed in setter injection, making it more flexible. Setter injection overpowers constructor injection when a choice is made by the IOC container. Dependencies for under one property are going to be transferred through the setter method and not the constructor. 

  • Spring bean factory who creates an instance for spring bean? 

Spring bean is managed, controlled, assembled, and initialized. Creating a bean definition creates a recipe that creates instances for spring beans. (Most of the people study for spring bean during their preparation) for spring interview questions for experienced.)

  • What’s the default scope of spring bean? 

The default scope of spring bean in singleton. The spring container will create an instance for the category for beans so it can inject when required.

  • What’s Spring Bean Annotation?

 Spring context manages the bean which is returned by spring bean annotation.

  • What’s the default bean id and might this be solved? 

A default beam id is made when no specific name or alias is given, this is often interpreted by bean annotations. To override this, specific names are often provided for the beans. 

  • What’s configuration annotation?

Configuration annotation shows quite one class indicating that a category which is processes using bean methods to urge bean definitions. 

  • Why can’t the bean method be final in profile?

 Spring uses CGLIB to form a proxy for the Configuration class. It’ll create a subclass for each class, hence the tactic can be final. 

  • Are you able to utilize Bean alongside Profile?

 (You should be able to answer these in between line questions if you want to get credits in a spring interview questions for experienced candidates.)

Bean is employed with profiles as they don’t require separate classes and should be defined within an equivalent class. 

  • Can the component be used with the profile? 

Yes, it is often as profile annotation will dictate when a component could also be registered in specific profiles. • What are bean scopes available in Spring MVC only? 

These scopes include global-session, request, session. 

This is a crucial aspect in spring Java and it explains that it should be paid attention to during spring interview questions for experienced.

  • What’s AOP? 

Aspect-Oriented Programming powers the spring framework. It reduces boiler plate and handles cross-cutting concerns which help to focus on business logic. Why do I need AOP? 

It solves the matter of cross-cutting concerns. 

  • What might be a cross-cutting concern?

 It is a priority applied within the entire application. Give three samples of cross-cutting concerns. They could be logging, data transfer, and security.

  • What are the two proxy types utilized in spring? 

Spring AOP uses JDK dynamic proxies or CGLIB to make the proxy for the given object. 

  • Give any two pieces of advice to catch exceptions. Before advice is that it runs before a join point but it cannot prevent execution flow to the joining point without throwing an exception. After returning advice is run after a join point completes normally.
  1. Spring Boot Basics

  • What can be the advantages of using Spring Boot?

  • Spring boot incorporates no time speed and it is easy while developing Spring-based applications.
  • There is no deployment of war files. 
  • It can create standalone applications. 
  • It provides assistance to directly embed Tomcat, Jetty, Undertow into an application. 
  • there is no requirement for XML configuration; 
  • The ASCII document is reduced. 
  1. Spring JPA

  • What’s Spring Data JPA? 

Spring Data JPA is an element of the larger Spring Data family. The implementation of JPA-based repositories is less complicated. Spring interview questions for experienced people ask a lot about this. It deals with JPA-based data access layers. They’ll build Spring-powered applications used for data access technologies.

  1. 5. Spring Security 

Security is important in any framework so spring interview questions for experienced deal with questions on security.

  • Why does one need method security? 

We have an internet application or a desktop application, where the user can access the interface, so we’d like method security to secure that.

  1. Spring Cloud

  • What is spring cloud? 

Spring Cloud is an open-source library that gives solutions to the JVM-based application on the clouds, the mechanism of spring cloud improved experience to users aided by features like Distributed configuration and Global locks.

  • What problems are solved by Spring Cloud?

While creating distributed microservices under Spring Boot, some issues can be caused by Spring Cloud. The distributed systems are complex and a few issues include network issues, Bandwidth issues, security issues, and also Latency overhead. After which you’re required to specify Spring Security intercept URL pattern within the applicationContext-Security.xml file.

  • What is Netflix Feign? 

Feign was created and released by Netflix as a part of their Netflix OSS project. It’s an open-source project now. It makes writing web service clients easier by extending annotation support to clients with just interfaces.

  • What could be a spring cloud bus?

Spring Cloud Bus connects the nodes of a distributed system with a light-weight message broker. A main idea is that the bus is sort of a distributed actuator for a Spring Boot application that’s out of scale. Nevertheless, it may be wont to create a communication between apps.

  • What is Hystrix?

The Hystrix is a framework library that helps to manage the communication between services by alerting of tolerances. It hence improves the resilience of the system by isolating the failing services and stopping the destructive effect of failures. The system is more efficient with hysterix in use. 

  • What are the features of spring clouds?

Remembering features will give you an upper hand in spring interview questions for experienced web developers. 

Intelligent Routing and repair discovery

When one builds a microservices on Spring Cloud, there’s a primary issue which is to cope with the primary two primary microservices: service of configuration and therefore the service of discovery. The chart shows a picture of those services. (https://www.Javatpoint.com/features-of-spring-cloud) There is a connection between each service that indicates dependency as all services are somewhere addicted to one another. The service of configuration is at the highest, and therefore the services of discovery are at the underside. The leadership elections are often wont to provide global state or global ordering without sacrificing their availability. 

The programmer uses a mechanism called global lock to try to pander to things. In this, each thread first acquires the lock, then it operates on the resources and at last releases the lock for other threads and properties for applications across all environments. 

Spring cloud is a large part of spring and also takes up questions in the spring interview questions for experienced.

  1. Spring Boot Testing

  • Which frameworks are used for unit testing?

Java is largely used for developing web applications. Unit tests are done on Java-based applications, developers use two frameworks such as JUnit and NUnit.

Spring’s integration testing has the following goals (primary):

  • When managing Spring IoC container caching between tests, ApplicationContext is reused for each test.
  • By default, once it is loaded, the configuration provides Dependency Injection of test fixture instances.
  • They have to provide transaction management appropriate to integration testing.
  • They aim to supply Spring-specific base classes that aid developers in writing integration tests.

The managed application context has two options to access the Context with the TestContext Framework in JUnit.

The first option: Implementing the ApplicationContextAware interface or use Autowired on a field of the ApplicationContext type. 

You can also specify in the RunWith annotation at the class level.

The second option: Access the managed application context. This is achieved by extending the TestContext support class specific to JUnit.

  • What does it mean by MockBean?

MockBean annotation allows to mock or give a fake to a class or an interface to record and verify behaviors on it. It is used as a class-level annotation or can be used on fields in either Configuration classes, or test classes that are RunWith the SpringRunner. MockBean is said to be similar to mockito’s Mock along with Spring support.

  • Explain the difference between injectmock and mock?

In mockito based JUnit tests, the Moock annotation creates mocks and InjectMocks develops class objects. You can use InjectMocks to create class instances that have to be tested in the test class, while the programmers use Mock to create mocks that are needed to support testing of class to be tested. So one is creating mocks and the other is creating instances. 

What is a Health Indicator, explain with specific codes?

Health indicator in spring boot is when the Spring Boot defines the values of four different aspects of health status. UP indicates that the component or subsystem is working as expected. DOWN indicates that the component is not working. OUT_OF_SERVICE indicates that the component is out of service temporarily. UNKNOWN indicates that the component state is unknown. It is important to understand these codes to find out when the application is in trouble and needs repair.

How are you supposed to check your spring boot health status?

Adding a Health Check in Spring Boot includes these two steps:

  1. First is typing these codes: org.springframework.boot spring-boot-starter-actuator
  2. Then you have to enter this in the system: {“status”:”UP”}

Conclusion

When you look for interview tips, researching upon interview questions through different websites is an essential part. This article will give you the answers of the most common questions asked during this interview. However it is prudent to not rely on it completely. Search for your answers and compare your previous knowledge about spring interview questions for experienced.

There are many more subtopics related to spring framework interview which you can search about.Learning this framework interview questions will give a ticket to Java jobs as it’s a dominant aspect. The best way to get ready for the spring interview is to jot down questions and the answers in points. Avoid memorizing, try to understand each concept. You can look up videos, websites that will give you a better understanding in case you get stuck anywhere. Keep revising every day, don’t skip.  

All the budding software developers should understand that they should take up Java only if they are passionate about it. It requires in depth- conceptual understanding and hours of practical work which includes coding, creating applications, and much more. Last and foremost, nothing is achieved overnight, you need dedication, practice, and enthusiasm which will get you through any interview. Best of luck for your journey to master most kinds of spring interview questions for experienced.

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