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Top 45 Networking Interview Questions & Answers

If you’re planning to work as a network engineer, you surely have the information about your need to prepare for an interview before you land up on your dream job. In this article, we have compiled the most relevant networks interview questions for you. Some topics this article will cover are:

Interview questions on network topology

Interview questions on different types of network

Interview questions on frame relay work

And much more.

These network engineer interview questions are divided into two segments; for the freshers and the experienced.

Networks interview questions for Freshers

1. What exactly is a network?

A network is made up of two or more independent devices that are connected together in order to interact. Networking is the process of transferring data between computers and devices via wired or wireless connections. Networks may be classed based on a variety of factors, including their size, kind of connection, functional relationship, topology, and function, to name a few.

Let’s move on to the next question, that belongs to the group of Interview questions on different types of network.

2. What are the many kinds of networks?

We may categorise networks based on their size or spread as follows:

PAN (Personal Area Network) – A PAN is a collection of devices that are only utilised by one individual. It has a few metres of range.

WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) – A WPAN is a PAN that employs wireless technology as its medium.

LAN (Local Region Network) – A LAN is a network with a range that is restricted to a small area, such as a room, a building, or an aeroplane.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) – WLAN is a LAN network that communicates using wireless technology. Because of its scalability and the fact that it does not require the installation of wires, it is a popular arrangement.

CAN (Campus Region Network) — A network of high-speed devices that links LANs in a constrained geographic area, such as a university campus or a military post.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), often known as a metropolitan region network, is a high-speed (broadband) network that covers a greater geographic area than a campus but is still restricted.

WAN (Wide Region Network) – A WAN is a network that spans a vast geographical area and uses unique communication methods such as satellites, interoceanic cables, fibre optics, and so on. Make use of the public media.

VLAN – A VLAN is a logical or virtual LAN installed on a physical network to improve security and performance. It is feasible to mount virtual networks over WAN networks in some situations due to the 802.11Q protocol (also known as QinQ). This implementation should not be confused with VPN technology.

If the interviewer asks you to explain the answer to this networks interview question, then only explain.

3. What is Network Cabling, and how does it work?

A cable is a wire made up of many conductors that are all isolated from one another. A wrap is generally used to protect this cord, which improves its strength and flexibility. Direct connections between two computers or computer systems are possible using network cables.

Several factors must be considered while selecting a network cable, including –

  • The length of the cable that must be covered
  • The fastest data transfer speed possible
  • The cable’s surface finish
  • The sort of braiding, shielding, and/or sheathing that will be used to build the network

4. What are the many kinds of network cables that are used in networking?

The many types of cables used in networks are as follows:

  • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable is a type of cable that is not protected.
  • Twisted Shielded Pair (STP) Cable
  • Cable Coaxial
  • Cable made of fibre optics
  • Installation Instructions for Cables
  • Wireless LANs (WLANs)

Let’s move to the next network engineer interview questions.

5. What exactly is DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is an important element of the internet that allows you to match names (such as a website you’re looking for) to numbers (the address for the website). An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a string of digits that identifies everything connected to the internet, including computers, tablets, mobile phones, and websites.

6. What is the topology of a network?

The logical or physical arrangement in which the devices or nodes of a network (e.g., computers, printers, servers, hubs, switches, routers, and so on) are coupled through a communication medium is known as network topology. The physical topology, which is the actual layout of the cables (the media), and the logical topology, which specifies how the hosts access the media, are two aspects of the topology.

This was one of the interview questions on network topology.

7. In a network, what is the difference between a client and a server?

For this networks interview question, you could say; Clients and servers are logically distinct entities that collaborate to complete a job across a network.

The part of communication that seeks or requests a network service, such as visiting a web page, downloading a file, or sending an email, is known as a client application.

A server application is a communication piece that reacts to client requests by delivering the needed service, such as transmitting the requested web page, file, or email.

Computer applications like email, the internet, and network printing employ the client-server architecture.

8. What is a ‘frame relay,’ and where does it work?

Frame Relay is a digital packet-switched protocol network that connects local area networks (LANs) and transfers data over wide area networks (WANs). X.25 and Frame Relay both use part of the same underlying technologies.

It’s based on the earlier X.25 packet-switching technology created to send analogue data as voice conversations. Frame Relay is a rapid packet technology, unlike X.25, which was intended for analogue communications. This implies that the protocol does not attempt to rectify mistakes. It’s common to utilise leased T-1 lines to link LANs to major backbones, as well as in public wide area networks and private network settings. It necessitates a dedicated connection throughout the transmission period and is not suitable for speech or video transmissions that demand a continuous stream of data.

The above was an interview question on frame relay work, and there are a few more on this topic further.

9. What is a Frame Relay, and how does it work?

Frame Relay allows traffic from several connections to be multiplexed across a single physical channel. It packs data into individual frame relay messages using hardware components such as bridges, router frames, and switches. For channel addressing, each connection utilises a 10-bit Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI). There are two sorts of connections:

Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) are connections that are designed to be maintained for extended periods of time even when data is not being transmitted.

SVCs (Switchable Virtual Circuits) are used for single-session connectivity.

Frame Relay then puts the data in a variable-size unit known as a frame, deferring any error correction to the endpoints, thus speeding up the overall data transfer.

What exactly is ‘beaconing’?

The technique of beaconing allows a network to self-repair network issues.

Try to keep the answers to these networks interview questions to the point.

10. What is an IP address?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a network device’s numerically unique address. Because IP is a datagram-oriented connectionless protocol, each packet must have a header containing the source IP address, the destination IP address, and other data in order to be effectively transmitted.

11. What are the types of IP addresses?

IPs are divided into two categories: public and private.

A private IP address is a collection of numbers that is assigned to any computer or system that is connected to a private network. Your cell phone or your home router, both of which have a default local address, are examples of private IP addresses.

Public IP Addresses – Public IP addresses are worldwide addresses that may be seen by anybody surfing the web. To connect to such gadgets, all that is required is an internet connection.

This is an important networks interview question for freshers.

12. What are the most common network types?

The primary types of networks are as follows

a network built on servers

Peer-to-peer (P2P) networking

Preparing these network engineer interview questions before your interview is a very practical choice you can make.

Determine the difference between static and dynamic IP addressing.

A computer (or other device) with a static IP address is always configured to utilise the same IP address, whereas a dynamic IP address might change on a regular basis and is handled by a centralised network service.

13. What are the various methods for exchanging data?

The following are the many methods for exchanging data:

A Simplex

A Half-duplex

A Full-duplex

14. What are the criteria for a router’s optimal path selection?

The path selection is defined by the following parameters:

Prefix match with the longest prefix

a minimum of AD (administrative distance)

The measure with the lowest value

15. What is a source route, exactly?

A datagram’s source route is described as a series of IP addresses that indicate the datagram’s path. The source route might also be included in the IP datagram header.

16. What is the difference between an ACL (access control list) that is ‘standard’ and one that is ‘extended’?

Extended ACLs are source- and destination-based, whereas standard ACLs are source-only.

You can add a few more differences, depending on the networks interview question asked.

17. What is data encapsulation, and how does it work?

Data encapsulation is the act of breaking down large amounts of data into smaller, more manageable bits before sending it over the internet.

18. What exactly is RAS?

Remote Access Services (RAS) refers to any hardware and software combination that enables remote access to tools or information that are generally stored on a network of IT devices.

19. Mention the many network protocols that Windows RRAS services support?

The three primary network protocols that is supported by Windows RRAS are as follows:

  • NetBEUI
  • IPX
  • TCP/IP

20. What are the requirements for setting up a server?

The following are requirements for configuring a server:

  • It is necessary to connect the LAN card.
  • The root partition (the one on which the window is installed) should be formatted as NTFS.
  • A static IP address should be assigned to a server.

21. Why is it important to encrypt a network?

This is one of the most asked networks interview questions,

Encryption is the process of converting data from a readable to an unreadable format in order to ensure network security. To decrypt the data, the user must employ a secret key or password.

Encryption is beneficial not only for communications but also in any situation where sensitive information has to be protected. Thus, information stored on drives, folders, or even individual files may be encrypted to prevent unwanted access. Then, in addition to safeguarding users’ privacy, data encryption protects against other sorts of assaults such as identity theft and bank fraud, as well as offering a safeguard against the theft or loss of devices containing critical information.

22. What is a client-server model, and how does it work?

A framework of communication for network activities is the client-server paradigm or architecture. This framework is shared among clients, service requestors, and service providers. It provides them with transparent access to workgroup and/or organization-wide applications, data, computing services, and other resources across various platforms.

Functions of the Client-Server Relationship

Management of the user interface

Database queries and reports are generated by capturing and validating input data.

Shared peripherals management

Connect to other local or wide-area networks to establish communication linkages.

23. Can you explain to me what a protocol is made up of?

This is one of the most typical networking interview questions. Your response should be – A protocol has three essential parts —

Syntax: It refers to the data’s structure or format, as well as the order in which it is presented.

Semantics: This defines the meaning of each bit segment.

Time relates to two characteristics: the timing of data transmission and the pace of data transmission.

24. What exactly are ‘firewalls’?

A firewall is a network security system that is in charge of network traffic management. To prevent remote access and content filtering, it employs a set of security rules. Firewalls are used to protect computers and networks from worms, viruses, malware, and other malicious software. There are two types of firewalls:  

Physical — Physical firewall, also known as a hardware firewall, is a physical device that lies between the server and the outside network. They screen out any dangers to the device by analysing incoming communications. In institutions and major corporations, it is widely used.

Logical – A logical or software firewall may be installed anywhere on the subnet and protects hosts without the need to rewire the network. They only safeguard the machine on which they’re installed, and they’re often built right into the operating system.

25. What is a MAC address, and what does it mean?

For this network engineer interview question, you can say; A MAC (Media Access Control) address is a LAN card’s unique 48-bit hardware address, which is typically stored in the network adapter card’s ROM.

A network card’s or device’s MAC address is a unique identification assigned by the manufacturer. It’s also known as a hexadecimal digits-based physical address. Each MAC address is unique around the world, and they are theoretically fixed for each device.

Six pairs of digits make up a MAC address. The first three pairs assist in identifying the maker, while the next three pairs assist in identifying the exact model. It’s crucial to remember that a computer may connect to networks via a variety of devices; as a result, it’s usual to have a MAC address for Ethernet, one for Wi-Fi, and another for Bluetooth.

26. Provide Explanation of 10Base-T.

The 10Mbps data transfer rate is specified by 10Base-T. The term ‘Base’ here refers to ‘Baseband’ rather than ‘Broadband.’ T stands for twisted pair, which is the cable type.

The user support layers are given a name. Name them. 

User support layers are divided into three categories.

Presentation Layer, Session Layer, and Application Layer.

For such networks interview questions, it is best to keep your answer to the point.

27. What is piggybacking, and how does it work?

It’s the technique of getting access to a channel that has restricted communications from an established session by another user. This method is well-known for increasing the efficiency of bidirectional protocols.

28. What is asynchronous transmission, and how does it work?

It’s a serial transmission mode. It’s a data transfer method in which each character is a self-contained entity. In asynchronous transmission, each character has its start and stop bits and an irregular delay between them.

29. What is synchronous transmission, and how does it work?

For this networks interview question, you can say; Continuous data streaming in the form of signals, accompanied by regular time signals, is referred to as synchronous transmission. The external clocking system generates these signals, which guarantee that senders and receivers are in sync.

30. What are the many types of transmission medium available?

There are two types of transmission media:

Unguided media (wireless)

Guided media (wired) (wireless)

31. What is Process Sigma, and how does it work?

The frequency with which a task is completed without mistake is measured by Process Sigma. On a normal distribution, it is represented as a number of standard deviations.

32. What is an FMEA analysis?

FMEA (Failure Mode Effect and Analysis) is a qualitative and methodical methodology for identifying probable failure modes in a system, as well as the causes behind them and their consequences.

For this networks interview questions, keep your answers to the point.

33. What is OSPF, and how does it work?

The acronym OSPF actually stands for Open Shortest Path First. It’s a routing protocol that uses the link-state routing (LSR) method to determine the most efficient data transfer path.

34. What exactly is a backbone network?

It is a centralised infrastructure that distributes multiple routes and data to numerous networks. Backbone networks connect LANs and WANs, as well as handle bandwidth and multiple channel management.

35. What is the range of addresses in internet address classes?

The five distinct ranges of addresses in the internet classes are as follows:

(Class A) 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255

(Class B): 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255

(Class C): 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255

(Class D): 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255

(Class E): 240.0.0.0 – 247.255.255.255

36. What are Datalink Protocols and How Do They Work?

For this networks interview question, you can answer; The sets of criteria used to construct the data link layer are known as datalink protocols. The following are the several types of Data Link protocols:

Protocols that are synchronised

Protocols that are asynchronous

Protocols that are based on bits

Character-Oriented Protocols are a type of protocol that focuses on a certain character.

37. What is a Network Layer, and what does it do?

The Network Layer, also known as OSI Layer 3, offers services for transferring specific portions of data between recognised end devices across the network. Layer 3 employs four main procedures to complete this end-to-end transport:

38. Mention the many sorts of links that may be utilised to construct a computer network.

The following are the many sorts of links that may be utilised to construct a computer network:

  • Cables
  • Wireless Connections
  • Leased Lines
  • Last-Mile Links

39. Mention the different types of wires used in UTP cable for data transfer.

Wire 1, 2, 3, and 6 are the four types of wires used in UTP cable for data transfer. The data is transmitted via wires 1 and 2, while data is received over lines 3 and 6.

40. Is it possible to connect a computer network with RG59 and RG6 cables?

The computer network does not employ RG59 or RG6 connections. These cables are intended for use with the cable television network.

41. What exactly is 10Base2?

The IEEE 802.3a standard defines 10Base2, which provides data transmission rates of 10Mbps and a total segment length of 185 metres utilising RG-58 coaxial wire. The 10Base2 standard provides a physical bus architecture with BNC connections at either end of the wire and 50-ohm terminators. Each section must have one of its physical ends grounded.

42. What exactly is NIC?

This networks interview question is very important for an experienced candidate. The network interface controller is referred to as the NIC. A network interface controller (NIC) is a device or module that manages and configures a processing system’s interface to a network or other connectivity. In electronic systems, there are many distinct types of interfaces.

To properly transport data to and from the interface, NICs usually set up, maintain the current state, manage errors, and offer algorithm implementation.

43. What does the 5-4-3 rule entail? What kind of architecture is it utilised in?

The 5-4-3 rule states that a network can have a maximum of five segments that is linked by four repeaters. It’s used in Ethernet designs like 10Base2 and 10Base5. Only three segments can be filled with nodes under this rule.

44. In classes A, B, and C networks, specify the maximum number of networks and hosts.

The following are the maximum number of networks and hosts that can be utilised in class A, B, or C network:

  • There are 126 networks and 16,777,214 hosts in Class A.
  • There are 16,384 networks and 65,534 hosts in Class B.
  • There are 2,097,152 networks and 254 hosts in Class C.

45. What is the point-to-point protocol, and how does it work?

To link computers to external networking services, such as Internet service providers, a communications protocol is employed.

Any five apps that use the TCP port should be mentioned.

TCP port is used by the following five applications:

  • The FTP
  • The POP
  • The SSH
  • The SMTP
  • The Telnet

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