Congratulations, you’ve proceeded to the next round of your job application for the coveted VLSI Job. But now comes the most important and difficult part, the job interview stage. This stage provides you the opportunity to impress your prospective employer and make a favourable impression. Here are eight VLSI interview questions and answers that potential hiring managers may ask you during an interview to determine if you’re the right fit for the role. 1. Can you point out the two main types of procedural blocks in Verilog? There are two primary types of procedural blocks available in Verilog which are: Initial – Initial blocks are those procedural blocks which run only once at time zero. Always – This procedural block loop tends to execute itself over and over again and as the name suggests, always gets executed. 2. Can you describe how Verilog is different as compared to another normal programming language? In comparison to a normal programming language, Verilog is different in the following aspects: • Multiple threads. • Basic circuit concepts such as primitive gates as well as network connections. • Simulation time concept. 3. Can you point the three regions of operation of MOSFET and how they are used? MOSFET or metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor is a transistor which is used for either amplifying or switching electronic signals. Accordingly, it has three areas of operations: • Triode region • Cut-off region • Saturation region While the triode and cut-off region are used to function as a switch, the saturation region, on the other hand, is used to operate as an amplifier. 4. What are the different types of skews used in VLSI? There are three different types of skew which are primarily used in VLSI. A skew is used in the clock in order to reduce the delay or in a bid to better understand the process. Accordingly, the three different types of skew are as under: Local skew: Local skew usually includes the difference between the launching flip-flop and the destination flip-flop. This differentiation helps define a time path between the two. Global skew: Global skew defines the difference between the earliest component reaching the flip flow vis-à-vis the latest component arriving at the flip flow within the same clock domain. It needs to be mentioned that in this skew, the delays are not measured while the clock is uniform for both. Useful skew: Useful skew is used to define the delay in capturing flip flop paths which, in turn, help in setting up an environment with precise requirements for the launch and capture of the timing path. It needs to be mentioned that for design purposes, the hold requirement has to be met.
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5. How many transistors does a Static RAM use? Static RAM makes use of six transistors. It also needs to be said that, under Static RAM, read and write operations make use of the same port. 6. Can explain what an SCR is? SCR or Silicon Controlled Rectifier can be described as a 4 layered, 3-terminal solid-state device which is used to control the flow of current. It can be termed as a type of rectifier which is controlled by a logical gate signal. 7. Can you explain what DCMs are and why they are used? DCM or Digital Clock Manager can be described as a fully digital control system which makes use of feedback in order to maintain clock signal characteristics with a high degree of precision. DCM manages to do this despite the occurrence of normal variations in operating temperature and voltage. 8. Can you explain what the usage of defpararm? With the keyword defparam, parameter values can be modified at any module instance in the design. In addition, Defparam overrides the parameter value at compile time.
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