Described as an open source development framework for Enterprise Java, Spring Framework is undoubtedly one of the most popular Java EE (Enterprise Edition) frameworks for web applications. Increasingly, a lot of interviewers interviewing candidates during Java EE and core Java interviews have started asking questions relevant to Spring framework. Suffice to say, if you’re good at Spring Framework, then you will come out of your interview with flying colours and your chances of getting selected automatically will improve as well. In order to convince the interviewer that you’re the right fit for the role, you need to demonstrate that you are well prepared during the interview. Here's a list of some of the common Spring Framework based interview questions that could be asked during a Java or a J2EE interview. 1. What is Spring Security? Spring Security framework is a separate module that focuses on providing both, authentication as well as authorisation methods in Java applications. Additionally, this framework is also responsible for tackling an array of common security vulnerabilities such as CSRF attacks to state an example. By making use of a simple annotation such as @EnableWebSecurity, you can enable Spring Security in web applications. 2. Please elaborate what Spring DAO is? Spring DAO or Data Access Object is Spring’s support provided to work with a bunch of data access technologies like JDBC, Hibernate, and JPA in a seamless, quick, and consistent manner. For instance, we have JDBCDaoSupport, HibernateDaoSupport, and JPADaoSupport for the corresponding technologies mentioned above. 3. How would you define the scope of a bean? Firstly, we need to set Spring Bean’s scope by making use of @Scope annotation or the “scope” attribute in XML configuration files. That being said, there are 5 types of bean scopes covered and supported in Spring • singleton • prototype • request • session • globalSession 4. What are Spring beans? It is a collection of objects that are responsible for forming the backbone of a user’s application and which are managed by the Spring IoC container. Thereafter, a bean is described as an object that is instantiated, assembled, and otherwise managed by a Spring IoC container. These beans are created with the configuration metadata that you supply to the container – for instance – in the form of XML definitions. 5. Which dependency injection method is the best way of injecting beans and why? Although you can you can use both Constructor-based and Setter-based Dependency Injection, the recommended approach would be to use constructor arguments for mandatory dependencies and setters for optional dependencies. This is because constructor-based injection allows you to inject values to immutable fields thus making the testing infinitely easier. You may also like: Top 20 Most Frequent Java Interview Questions 6. What is Spring MVC framework? Spring comes packed with a fully loaded Model-View-Controller framework that can be used for building web applications. It also needs to be mentioned that although it's easy to integrate Spring with other frameworks – such as Struts – Spring’s MVC framework uses IoC to facilitate a clean separation of the different aspects of the application controller logic from business objects. 7. What are the ways to access Hibernate by using Spring? There are a couple of quick ways you can access Hibernate by using Spring. • Inversion of Control with a HibernateTemplate and Callback. • Extending HibernateDAOSupport and Applying an AOP Interceptor node. 8. Could you list some of the Design Patterns used in the Spring Framework? Singleton Pattern: Singleton-scoped beans. Model View Controller: Spring MVC. Prototype Pattern: Prototype-scoped beans. Adapter Pattern: Spring Web and Spring MVC. Front Controller: Spring MVC DispatcherServlet. Template Method Pattern: JDBCTemplate, HibernateTemplate, etc. Factory Pattern: Bean Factory classes. Data Access Object: Spring DAO support. Proxy Pattern: Spring Aspect Oriented Programming support. Also, keeping in mind the emphasis on testing for technical skill and knowledge, here is an additional list of Spring Framework frequently asked questions for you to have a look at. • How do we inject a Java.util.Properties into a Spring Bean? • What is the role of the @Required annotation? • Can you describe what is a Spring IOC container? • Please elaborate on DispatcherServlet and ContextLoaderListener? • Explain the Bean lifecycle within a Spring framework? • What is Spring Java Based Configuration? Explain with the help of an annotation example. • How does one set up a LDAP Authentication using Spring Security? • What are some of the common implementations of the ApplicationContext? • How does one enable transactions in Spring? What are their benefits? • Can you shed light on how to provide configuration metadata to the Spring Container? • Kindly explain how JDBC be used more efficiently in the Spring framework? • Can you describe what a Bean Factory is? Have you ever used XMLBeanFactory? • Explain the benefits of the Spring Framework transaction management?
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